What is difference between NAS and SAN Storage

Network Attached Storage and Storage Area Network provide networked storage solution.

A NAS is a single storage device that operate on data files, while a SAN is a local network of multiple devices that operate on disk blocks.

The names almost give away the difference between network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SANs): you would expect a NAS to consist just of storage and a SAN to be a network, and that is true – up to a point.

Designed to be easy to manage, a NAS is fundamentally a bunch of disks, usually arranged in a Raid and consisting of either SAS (serial attached SCSI) or Sata disks just like the ones in most desktops. Users and servers attach to the NAS primarily using TCP/IP over Ethernet, and the NAS has its own IP address. The primary job of a NAS is to serve files, so most NAS systems offer support for Windows networking, HTTP, plus file systems and protocols such as NFS and Mac AFP.

While a SAN deals in blocks of data, a NAS operates at the file level and is accessible to anyone with access rights, so it needs also to manage user privileges, file locking and other security measures. The processing and control of this data is performed in large enterprise systems by a NAS head, physically separated from the storage system.

In contrast, SANs allow multiple servers to share a pool of storage, making it appear to the server as if it were local or directly attached storage, and it cannot be accessed by individual users. A dedicated networking standard, Fibre Channel, has been developed to allow blocks to be moved between servers and storage at high speed. It uses dedicated switches and a fibre-based cabling system which separates it from the day-to-day traffic traversing the busy enterprise network, while the well-established SCSI protocol enables communication between the servers’ host bus adaptors and the disk system.

The SAN’s storage usually consists of several large arrays of high-speed SAS disks spinning at up to 15,000 rpm, although solid-state disks are used in situations where performance or energy saving are priorities.

SANs are used for mission-critical data such as big databases, and reliability and performance are key. SANs need to be fast and transparent to the operating system even though the data may travel some distance from the server.

SAN / NAS Convergence

As Internet technologies like TCP/IP and Ethernet have proliferated worldwide, some SAN products are making the transition from Fibre Channel to the same IP-based approach NAS uses. Also, with the rapid improvements in disk storage technology, today’s NAS devices now offer capacities and performance that once were only possible with SAN. These two industry factors have led to a partial convergence of NAS and SAN approaches to network storage.

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Nmap Port Scanner – Introduction

Network scanners, such as Nmap (http://www.insecure.org/nmap/) or Nessus (http://
http://www.nessus.org), can scan for open ports on the local computer or on other computers. The
more sophisticated scanners, including Nessus, check for known vulnerabilities, so they can
tell you whether a server may be compromised should you decide to leave it running.

 

Nmap is capable of performing a basic check for open ports. Pass the -sT parameter and
the name of the target system to it, as shown here:

ami@amios:~$ nmap -sT google.com

Starting Nmap 6.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2014-03-01 12:40 UTC
Nmap scan report for google.com (74.125.136.102)
Host is up (0.0045s latency).
Other addresses for google.com (not scanned): 74.125.136.113 74.125.136.101 74.125.136.100 74.125.136.139 74.125.136.138
rDNS record for 74.125.136.102: ea-in-f102.1e100.net
Not shown: 998 filtered ports
PORT    STATE SERVICE
80/tcp  open  http
443/tcp open  https

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 4.96 seconds

This output shows you 2 open port 80 (http) and 443 (https). You can use nmap to scan your server itself and then see if there are services running which does not support to be there.

When you use a network scanner, you should consider the fact that the ports you see
from your test system may not be the same as those that might be visible to an attacker.
This issue is particularly important if you’re testing a system that resides behind a fi rewall
from another system that’s behind the same firewall.

 

On the other hand, a
cracker on your local network would most likely have access similar to your own, so you
shouldn’t be complacent because you use a fi rewall. Nonetheless, fi rewalls can be important
tools for hiding servers without shutting them down.

 

You can use a stand-alone Linux boot CD-ROM to perform security
checks on a network. Tools intended for this purpose, such as BackTrack
(http://www.backtrack-linux.org), provide easy access to Nmap and
other network security tools, enabling quick checks of network security
even if no computer on that network regularly runs Linux.

The latest current version is Kali Linux

 

 

 

“Many Thanks” for your support! Blog Stats

I though I will share some stats with you guys. Many Thanks for visiting my website this keeps me going 🙂

As per today I had 6119 site visit since last year.

My Blog has been visited by 125 Countries !!!!!!!

As you can see the USA seems to be on the top of list ;).

I have earned 0 from by Blog so far 🙂

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Linux lsof command. How to use it

lsof – a linux command stand for LiSt Open Files and this is what this command does.

To get more inform you can type

man lsof

info lsof

type lsof

This will give you some info which I want be explaining here as you can manuals so you use them!

The lsof program can be used to identify what files are open in a directory, find who’s accessing them, and so on.

As everything in Linux is a file and is kept in the file it also means that you can use this command to display network connections.

i parameter will select all the listing of files any of whose Internet address matches the address specified. If no address is specified, this option select the listing of all Internet.

ami@amios:~$ lsof -i
COMMAND   PID USER   FD   TYPE  DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
ruby    19379  ami    8u  IPv4 4682378      0t0  TCP localhost:45065 (LISTEN)

You can restrict the output of lsof by including an address after the -i option. The addres takes the following form:

[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

The digit 4 or 6 represent an IPv4 or IPv6 connection, the protocol is the protocl type (TCP or UDP), the hostname or hostaddr is the computer hostname or IP address associated with the remote system.

ami@amios:~$ lsof -i :ftp

Nothing get displayed as I am not running a FTP service on my testbed.

Alternatively, you can replace ftp with 21, because 21 is the port number associated with FTP port.

ami@amios:~$ lsof -i | grep LISTEN
ruby    19379  ami    8u  IPv4 4682378      0t0  TCP localhost:45065 (LISTEN)
 

Paging through the raw output (without using grep to search for LISTEN) will provide
you with a better idea of your system’s overall network use. You could conceivably spot
something suspicious, such as an outgoing network connection to a sensitive computer
that the client shouldn’t be contacting. This network activity may indicate active cracking
attempts by a user of the client, intrusion by an outsider, or the work of an automated
worm or Trojan horse program.

If you identify programs that shouldn’t be running, such as unnecessary servers, you can
use the command name, PID, and other information to help shut them down. The preceding
section “Disabling Unused Servers” describes how to do this in more detail.
Another use of lsof is in identifying who’s accessing fi les. This might be handy if you
need to unmount a fi lesystem (including a network fi lesystem) but can’t because of in-use
fi les or if you suspect inappropriate activities involving file access.

 

 

 

 

English Names for characters in keyboard

~ tilde (sounds like til-da); be prepared to explain to computer-illiterate people saying “you know, the wave-shaped thingy”
! exclamation; commonly read as bang in case of #!/bin/sh
@ at
# pound; but commonly read as shee in case of #!/bin/sh, not sure why
$ dollar
% percent
^ caret; not many people know this word so be prepared to say “no, not carrot; it’s the character above 6, an arrow pointing up”
& ampersand
* star; some read asterisk
( opening parenthesis (some may shorten it saying paren)
) closing parenthesis
_ underscore; once I heard people say underbar
+ plus
minus; as symbol before arguments in commands, some people including me read dash, easier to say one syllable
= equals
` backtick or backquote
{ opening brace
} closing brace
[ opening bracket
] closing bracket
| pipe or vertical bar
\ backslash; be prepared to explain to some computer-illiterate people
: colon
; semicolon
double quote
single quote
< less than; some may read left angle bracket
> greater than
, comma
. dot; period if in English text
? question mark
/ slash or forward slash; some computer-illiterate people may be confused about / and \
space
(), [] and {} may also be called brackets in general. In that case, they specifically call [] square brackets and {} curly brackets. I never like this. Open and Closing may also be called left and right.